Halobacterial Viruses (Haloviruses). SUMMARY TABLE (MD-S, 2010)

#

NAME

HOST CELLa

SOURCE

TEMPERATE
/Virulent

GENOME (SIZE, kb)

%G+C

(mol%)

ECLIPSE/ LATENCY (hr)

BURST SIZE

PARTICLE MORPHOLOGY

SIZE (head;tail, µm)

COMMENTS

REFERENCES

1 Hh1 Hbt. salinarum ATCC 29341 (and 1 other strain) Fish sauce
Temperate (?). (Immune to super infection)
37.2
67
6 ; 12
1100 (in 2 cycles)
Isometric head and non- contractile tail. Bradley Gp B
60 ; 100
Phage released without cell lysis Pauling, 1982; Rohrmann et al., 1983
2 Hh3 Hbt. salinarum ATCC 29341 (and 1 other strain) Fish sauce
Yes
29.4
62
5 ; 8
425
Isometric head and non- contractile tail. Bradley Gp B
75 ; 50
DNA has different restriction pattern to that of Hh1 Pauling, 1982; Rohrmann et al., 1983
3 Ja1 Hbt. salinarum NRC 34001 (and 2 other strains) Salt ponds, Jamaica
No
230b
NDc
2 ; 9
140
Isometric head and non- contractile tail.
90 ; 150
Broad range of salinarum strains. Particl e density 1.55 g/ml Wais et al., 1975
4 Hs1 Hbt. salinarum Strain 1 Hbt. salinarum
Yes
ND
ND
12 ; 17
320
Isometric head and contractile tail. Bradley Gp A
50 ; 120
  Torsvik and Dundas, 1974; Torsvik and Dundas, 1980
5 Φ H Hbt. salinarum ATCC 29341 (and 4 other strains) Hbt. salinarum
Yes
59
65
5.5 ; 7
170
Isometric head and contractile tail
64 ; 170
Well studied and partly sequenced. Forms plasmid in lysogens. Similarities to lysogenic coliphages like P1. Gropp et al., 1989; Reiter et al., 1988; Schnabel et al., 1982 ; Stolt and Zillig, 1992 ; and further studies by Stolt et al. 1993-4.
6 ΦN Hbt. salinarum NRL/JW (and 1 other strain) Hbt. salinarum
ND
56
70
10 ; 14
400
Isometric head and non- contractile tail
55 ; 80
5-methyl-cytosine replaces cytosine Vogelsang-Wenke and Oesterhelt, 1988
7 S45 Hbt. salinarum NRC 34001 (and 3 other strains) Salt ponds, Jamaica
No
ND
ND
ND
1300 (persistent infection)
Isometric head and non- contractile tail. Bradley Gp B1
40 ; 70
Persistent infection. Cells survive virus release. Daniels and Wais, 1984
8 S5100 Hbt. salinarum NRC 34001 Salt ponds, Jamaica
Yes
ND
ND
3.5-9.5 ;

9-11d

ND
Isometric head and contractile tail
ND
  Daniels and Wais, 1990
9 B10 Halobacterium sp.B10  
No
ND
ND
ND
ND
Isometric head and non- contractile tail
ND
  Torsvik, 1982
10 HF1 Hfx. lucentense (prev. Hbt. sp., Phenon K Aa2.2 (and 4 other genera) Cheetham saltworks, Australia
Lytic
77.7b
55.8
ND
ND
Isometric head and contractile tail
58 ; 94
Broad host range, including Haloferax volcanii. Nuttall and Dyall-Smith, 1993
11 HF2 Halorubrum coriense (Ch2) (and 1 other species of same genus) Cheetham saltworks, Australia
Lytic
77.7
55.8
ND
65
Isometric head and contractile tail
58 ; 94
Host range restricted to members of Halorubrum. Nuttall and Dyall-Smith, 1993; Nuttall and Dyall-Smith, 1995
12 His1 Har. hispanica Avalon Saltern, Vic, Australia
Lytic/carrier
14.9
40
ND ; 3
< 1
Spindle-shaped and small tail
74x44 ; 7
  Bath and Dyall-Smith, 1998; Bath, 1995
13 His2 Har. hispanica Pink Lakes, Vic, Australia
Lytic/carrier
16.2
ND
ND ; 1
9
spindle shaped but easily distorted.
62x69 ; 0
  Bath, 1995; Bath et al., 2006
14 ΦCh1 Nab. magadii N. magadii
Yes
55b
62
ND
ND
Isometric head and contractile tail
70 ; 130
RNA and dsDNA in mature phage particles; partial adenine methylation.Similarities to halovirus f H. Witte et al., 1997.
15 SH1 Har. hispanica salt lake, WA
Lytic
31
      round, with an internal lipid layer
55
  Porter et al., 2005
16 BJ1 Hrr.saccharovorum-related salt lake, I.Mongolia
ND
42.3
64.8
    head-tail, non-contractile tail
56 ; 71
AM419438 Pagaling et al. (2007)
17 HRPV1 Halorubrum sp. PV6 Trapani, Italy
chronic
7
54
2-3 hr
  pleomorphic, lipid envelope
44 x 55
ssDNA, circular genome. Similar to plasmid pHK2 Pietila et al. (2009)
18 SNJ1 Natrinema sp. F5             head-tail
67 ;570
used mitomycin C induction to isolate Mei et al. (2007)
19 HHTV-1 Har. hispanica Trapani, Italy           head-tail
55 ; 110
  Kukkaro & Bamford (2009)
20 HCTV-1 Haloarcula californiae Trapani, Italy           head-tail
70 ; 80
  Kukkaro & Bamford (2009)
21 HRTV-1 Halorubrum sp. s1-1 Trapani, Italy           head-tail
55 ; 85
  Kukkaro & Bamford (2009)
22 HHPV-1 Har. hispanica Trapani, Italy           pleomorphic    

Kukkaro & Bamford (2009)
Roine et al. 2010

? EHP1
-
crystallizer, Alicante, Spain
-
35
51
-
-
-
metagenomic evidence, not isolated

a H. cutirubrum and H. halobium strains originally described as host cells are now designated Hbt. salinarum. Only culture collection

numbers or strains are given for these strains. Hosts from other genera are named.

b Approximate values only

c ND, not determined

d Dependent upon salt water concentration

e All haloviruses (to date) have linear dsDNA genomes.